The historical Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age Europe. Proto-Celtic culture formed in the Early Iron Age in Central Europe (Hallstatt period, named for the site in present-day Austria). By the later Iron Age (La Tène period), Celts had expanded over a wide range of lands: as far west as Ireland and the Iberian Peninsula, as far east as Galatia (central Anatolia), and as far north as Scotland.
The Vikings were seafaring Scandinavians engaged in exploring, raiding and trading in waters and lands outside of Scandinavia from the eighth to eleventh centuries.
The Vinca culture flourished from 5,500 (2) to 3,500 BC (4) on the territories of what is now Bosnia, Serbia, Romania and Macedonia. It got its name from the present-day village of Vinca, 10 km east of Belgrade on the Danube river, where over 150 Vinca settlements have been determined. There is no evidence of war or defences in the townships, and it appears that the Vinca were a peaceful society combining low-level agriculture with foraging and trade. They produced the first known European examples of a 'proto'-script and were the first people in the world known to smelt copper. They existed in a similar state for almost 2,000 years, following which they appear to have dispersed around the Mediterranean and Aegean.
Old Europe, or Neolithic Europe, refers to the time between the Mesolithic and Bronze Age periods in Europe, roughly from 7000 B.C. to ca. 1700 B.C. (the beginning of the Bronze Age in northwest Europe). The duration of the Neolithic varies from place to place: in southeast Europe it is approximately 4000 years (i. e., 7000–3000 B.C.); in North-West Europe it is just under 3000 years (ca. 4500–1700 B.C.).
Regardless of specific chronology, many European Neolithic groups share basic characteristics, such as living in small-scale, family-based communities, more egalitarian than the city-states and Chiefdoms of the Bronze Age, subsisting on domestic plants and animals supplemented with the collection of wild plant foods and hunting, and producing hand-made pottery, without the aid of the potter's wheel. There are also many differences, with some Neolithic communities in southeastern Europe living in heavily fortified settlements of 3,000–4,000 people (e.g., Sesklo in Greece) whereas Neolithic groups in Britain were small (possibly 50–100 people) and highly mobile cattle-herders.
A Vinca terracotta idol Neolithic Period, circa 5th Millennium B.C.With angular head, pointed nose and stylised features, standing with hands outstretched , wearing a necklace and long-sleeved tunic decorated with stripes and a tight-fitting skirt.
Silver pair of Viking earrings. Size: 4,5 cm Period: c. 900 - 1000 AD Material: Silver Provenance: Belgium collection
Celtic Hallstatt Culture (c.800-450 BCE) A pair of large upper arm bracelets. Size: 12 x 10 cm Period: c. 650 B.C. Material: Bronze Condition: Excellent Provenance: Dutch collection 1960's
Neolithic stone idol. Lying anthropomorphic figure, holding hands on breast, wearing headdress. Size: 10 x 4 cm Period: c. 4000 - 3000 B.C. Material: Stone Origin: Eastern Europe Provenance: Greek Collection, by descent from the 1930`s to 1960`s.